The technology of food geographical origin traceability is essential for the country to effectively promote the implementation of food origin traceability and protect famous and unique products. To preserve the uniqueness and authenticity of food products in the market, maintain the market order, and safeguard the rights of producers and consumers, there is an urgent need to provide rapid, non-destructive testing for food geographical origin traceability. Compared with other detection techniques, spectroscopy, one of the most promising detection techniques for industrial application, is widely used for origin traceability due to its wide range of applications, fast analysis, simple operation, non-destructive, non-pollution, and online analysis. Herein, the principles of three standard spectroscopic techniques, namely Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), Mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR), and Raman spectroscopy (RS), and their application status in geographical origin traceability of plant and animal foods are introduced in detail, and comparison is made among them. Besides, the application of multispectral data fusion in food geographical origin identification is also systematically discussed. The future development trend is prospected, providing a measure of technical references for applying spectroscopic techniques in food geographical origin traceability.