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                  • EI
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                  • 食品科學與工程領域高質量科技期刊分級目錄第一方陣T1
                  • DOAJ
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                  • 北大核心期刊
                  • 中國核心學術期刊RCCSE
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                  • 中國精品科技期刊
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                  • 中國科技核心期刊CSTPCD
                  • 中國生物醫學SinoMed
                  中國精品科技期刊2020
                  李娜,呂爽,董建國,等. 常見食用菌營養成分及風味物質分析[J]. 食品工業科技,2023,44(18):441?448. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022110173.
                  引用本文: 李娜,呂爽,董建國,等. 常見食用菌營養成分及風味物質分析[J]. 食品工業科技,2023,44(18):441?448. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022110173.
                  LI Na, Lü Shuang, DONG Jianguo, et al. Analysis of Nutritional Components and Volatile Flavor Compounds in Common Edible Fungi[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2023, 44(18): 441?448. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022110173.
                  Citation: LI Na, Lü Shuang, DONG Jianguo, et al. Analysis of Nutritional Components and Volatile Flavor Compounds in Common Edible Fungi[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2023, 44(18): 441?448. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022110173.

                  常見食用菌營養成分及風味物質分析

                  Analysis of Nutritional Components and Volatile Flavor Compounds in Common Edible Fungi

                  • 摘要: 食用菌營養豐富,是優質蛋白質的潛在來源。本研究以18個常見食用菌品種為研究對象,分析了食用菌中的水分、灰分、蛋白、總糖和L-麥角硫因等營養成分,并采用頂空固相微萃取結合氣相色譜-質譜聯用法(HS-SPME-GC-MS)分析了其中6種食用菌子實體、菌絲體及發酵液的風味物質。結果表明,18種食用菌水分含量為6.7~13.77 g/100 g、灰分含量為2.24~10.9 g/100 g、脂肪含量為0.3~2.92 g/100 g、總糖含量為2.11~10.5 g/100 g。粗蛋白含量在7.88~35.87 g/100 g之間,其中雙孢菇的蛋白質含量高達35.87 g/100 g。氨基酸種類齊全、含量豐富且含有人體必需的8種必需氨基酸。主成分分析表明香菇、黑木耳、灰樹花、草菇和金針菇等食用菌的氨基酸組成比例與雞蛋最相似,但與肉類、大豆和小麥等氨基酸組成相差較大。高效液相色譜結果表明香菇中富含麥角硫因,含量高達336 mg/kg,且灰樹花、羊肚菌、雙孢菇和雞腿菇的麥角硫因含量也高于100 mg/kg。HS-SPME-GC-MS在6種食用菌中共鑒定出34種主要揮發性化合物,包括醛類、酮類、酯類、醇類、酚類、醚類、烷烴類和雜環化合物。靈芝菌絲體富含己醛、甲基壬基甲酮、反-2-辛烯醛、2-正戊基呋喃、2,4-壬二烯醛等成分,與其他17種樣品有明顯差異;6種食用菌發酵液的風味物質相似,均具有庚酸乙酯、18-冠醚-6等特有風味物質;而靈芝、雞腿菇子實體以及杏鮑菇菌絲具有2,6-二叔丁基對甲酚、苯甲酸甲酯等特有風味。本研究通過分析常見食用菌的營養成分及風味物質,為食用菌的高值化開發提供了數據基礎。

                     

                    Abstract: Edible fungi were rich in nutrients and were potential sources of high-quality protein. In this study, nutritional components such as moisture, ash, protein, total sugar and L-ergothione in 18 kinds of edible fungi were analyzed, and headspace solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) were used to analyze the fruit-body, mycelium and fermentation broth of 6 edible fungi (Lentinula edodes, Agaricus bisporus, Coprinus comatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Auricularia heimuer and Ganoderma lucidum). The results showed that the water content of 18 edible fungi ranged from 6.7 to 13.77 g/100 g, ash content from 2.24 to 10.9 g/100 g, fat content from 0.3 to 2.92 g/100 g and total sugar content from 2.11 to 10.5 g/100 g. The crude protein content of 18 edible fungi ranged from 7.88 to 35.87 g/100 g, among which the protein content of Agaricus bisporus was as high as 35.87 g/100 g. There was no significant difference in the content of other nutrients. The amino acids were rich and contained 8 kinds of essential amino acids necessary for human body. Principal component analysis showed that the amino acid composition ratio of Lentinula edodes, Auricularia heimuer, Grifola frondosa, Volvariella volvacea, and Flammulina velutipes was most similar to that of egg, but significantly different from that of meat, soybeans and wheat. The results of high performance liquid chromatography showed that Lentinula edodes was rich in ergothioneine, and the content was up to 336 mg/kg. The ergothioneine content of edible fungi such as Grifola frondosa, Morchella, Agaricus bisporus and Coprinus comatus were also higher than 100 mg/kg. A total of 34 volatile compounds, including aldehydes, ketones, esters, alcohols, phenols, ethers, alkanes and heterocyclic compounds, were identified by HS-SPME-GC-MS in 6 edible fungi. Ganoderma lucidum mycelium was rich in hexal, methylnonylketone, trans-2-octenal, 2-n-amylfuran, 2,4-nononadienal and other volatile compounds, which were significantly different from the other 17 samples. The flavor substances of the fermentation broth of the six edible fungi were similar, and all of them had special flavor substances such as ethyl heptanate and 18-crown-6. Pleurotus eryngii mycelium and the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum and Coprinus comatus contained butylated hydroxytoluene, methyl benzoate and other unique substances. This study provides data basis for the development of high value edible fungi by analyzing the nutritional components and flavor substances of common edible fungi.

                     

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